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Limited Healthcare White Paper Samples

     We routinely collaborate with graphic designers to create full-service white papers complete with graphics and logos. Here we present only the text, versus bulky PDFs, for ease of reading.

     Please contact us for additional samples, or for more information on our white paper writing services.


           White paper sample #1

           White paper sample #2




White Paper Sample #1




          Do you know what your Protein Kinase C is doing?

          Elucidating PKC’s elusive functions with ChemGen’s CordaShield TR-FRET Protein Kinase C assay, using Bjorn Technologies’ Spectrum plate reader.


          Introduction

          Protein Kinase C (PKC) enzymes make up a diverse family of enzymes defined by the phosphorylation of proteins on serine and threonine amino acids under specific signaling conditions. PKCs are involved in a wide array of cellular functions, including cell growth, cell proliferation, cell movement and neuronal activity. PKCs are also known to play a role in several diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease, cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders.
          Given the wide spectrum of normal and abnormal cellular functions in which PKCs have been implicated, it is critical for researchers to elucidate PKCs precise function. Doing so, however, has proved difficult.
          Currently, scientists have successfully cloned ten distinct human isoforms of PKC. The isoforms’ specific actions in individual tissue types, however, have yet to be determined. Further, studies continue to add to the number of PKC-specific substrates and receptors that activate PKCs. These factors make the further elucidation of PKC’s function quite challenging. A TR-FRET screening assay, however, can be an effective aid for researchers working on a vast array of disorders and processes in which PKCs play a role.

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          The CordaShield TR-FRET platform from ChemGen uses terbium as the donor species and fluorescein as the acceptor group. The terbium/fluorescein base of CordaShield has several advantages. Assay optimization is simplified, the kinetics of complex formation are faster, steric problems are avoided, as are the cost and lot-to-lot consistency issues encountered with directly labeled substrates.
          ChemGen’s terbium-based CordaShield has several unique properties:           

  • CordaShield’s ratiometrocity eliminates well-to-well variation.           
  • CordaShield is time-resolved, permitting the use of fluorescein with no compound interference.           
  • Fluorescein simplifies assay development and costs.
          Bjorn Technologies’ Spectrum microplate reader provides an ideal platform for further simplification of ChemGen’s CordaShield assay development. Spectrum is a multifunctional plate reader. It effectively combines the rapid plate reading technology necessary for high throughput screen with the enhanced performance and sensitivity needed to read small fluid volumes. Spectrum has been designed to read all HTS detection modes— including fluorescence intensity, time-resolved fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, luminescence, Alphascreen TM, and absorption—in all plate formats, up to 1536 wells.
          The Spectrum also uses a customized, application-specific module in conjunction with an optical reading head. The head features five photomultiplier tubes that can simultaneously measure two emission signals at any wavelength. The optical design provides exceptional sensitivity and accuracy in fluorescence and luminescence assays, and simultaneous measurements effectively minimize assay read times.
          These features provide Spectrum with the speed and sensitivity necessary to take full advantage of CordaShield’s assay technology.

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          These results demonstrate the acute sensitivity of CordaShield PKC assays, in that they require sub ng/ml kinase concentrations thereby reducing overall screening costs. Assays have also been shown to be robust, with Z’ values exceeding 0.7, thus providing confidence the assay data are meaningful.
          Further, Bjorn Technologies has optimized its TR-FRET photomultiplier tubes to allow for the most sensitive CordaShield detection system on the market, and designed an optic module specifically for CordaShield, further simplifying assay setup.

          ChemGen’s CordaShield TR-FRET Protein Kinase C Assay Using the Spectrum
  • A specific optical module for application of ChemGen’s assay on Bjorn’s Spectrum
  • Duel wavelength detection of terbium and fluorescein
  • Strong, long-lasting donor signal that minimizes background
  • Rapid and reliable detection of PKC activity

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White Paper Sample #2


          Making the most of your assays, your cells and your time.

          Measuring multiple paramaters within the same well with Betamer’s Multiplexed Cell Viability and Apoptosis Assays performed on the Spectrum.

          Introduction

          High-volume screening facilities today face rising demands to produce more information from existing compound libraries. One way to obtain this information is to run sequential assays, in which the researcher looks at one parameter after another in separate plates. While this method may produce the desired data, the time and cost requirements are considerable.
          To avoid these drawbacks, researchers may opt to generate data by performing assays in a multiplexed format. Multiplexed assays allow for multiple parameters to be measured within the same well. One example of this is to the method of cell death—apoptosis or necrosis—following a certain treatment protocol. By performing two assays in a single well, researchers can obtain information on a drug’s mode of action in less time, with less consumable cost, and using smaller amounts of valuable test compounds.
          Assay multiplexing can be conducted using multiple cell-based assays multiplexed together. Cell assays have inherent properties that make them attractive for multiplexed cell-based applications. Indeed, cell-based assays are particularly at risk of variation due to plate-to-plate differences in cell growth and metabolism. And cell culture is inherently expensive.
          Therefore, by using multiplexing assays, researchers can acquire the same amount of data using fewer cells, and, as the same cells can be used for subsequent assays, data are also more precise.

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          Betamer’s multiplexed cell viability and apoptosis assays using Bjorn Technologies’ Spectrum plate reader:
  • Correlated measurement of an apoptosis marker and cell viability
  • Spectrum monitors for both luminescence and fluorescence output signals from the same assay well
  • Assay miniaturization up to a 1536-well format

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          Each of the experiments shown here demonstrate the ability to perform different assays within the same assay well. First using a non-lytic assay, such as Betamer’s [Cell Titer-Blue], allows for the sequential multiplexing of several different reagents within the same well. Multiplexed cell-based assays, with a multifunctional plate reader that records multiple output signals from the same assay well, allow researchers to measure multiple parameters within the same well, thus obtaining precise results faster and with less consumable usage.

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