Limited Healthcare White Paper Samples
routinely collaborate with graphic designers to create
full-service white papers complete with graphics and logos. Here
we present only the text, versus bulky PDFs, for ease
us for additional samples,
or for more information on our white paper writing
White paper sample #1
White paper sample #2
you know what your Protein Kinase C is doing?
PKC’s elusive functions with ChemGen’s CordaShield TR-FRET
Protein Kinase C assay, using Bjorn Technologies’ Spectrum
Kinase C (PKC) enzymes make up a diverse family of enzymes
defined by the phosphorylation of proteins on serine
and threonine amino acids under specific signaling conditions.
PKCs are involved in a wide array of cellular functions,
including cell growth, cell proliferation, cell movement
and neuronal activity. PKCs are also known to play a
role in several diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease,
cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders.
the wide spectrum of normal and abnormal cellular functions
in which PKCs have been implicated, it is critical for
researchers to elucidate PKCs precise function. Doing
so, however, has proved difficult.
scientists have successfully cloned ten distinct human
isoforms of PKC. The isoforms’ specific actions in individual
tissue types, however, have yet to be determined. Further,
studies continue to add to the number of PKC-specific
substrates and receptors that activate PKCs. These factors
make the further elucidation of PKC’s function quite
challenging. A TR-FRET screening assay, however, can
be an effective aid for researchers working on a vast
array of disorders and processes in which PKCs play
CordaShield TR-FRET platform from ChemGen uses terbium
as the donor species and fluorescein as the acceptor
group. The terbium/fluorescein base of CordaShield has
several advantages. Assay optimization is simplified,
the kinetics of complex formation are faster, steric
problems are avoided, as are the cost and lot-to-lot
consistency issues encountered with directly labeled
terbium-based CordaShield has several unique properties:
Technologies’ Spectrum microplate reader provides an
ideal platform for further simplification of ChemGen’s
CordaShield assay development. Spectrum is a multifunctional
plate reader. It effectively combines the rapid plate
reading technology necessary for high throughput screen
with the enhanced performance and sensitivity needed
to read small fluid volumes. Spectrum has been designed
to read all HTS detection modes— including fluorescence
intensity, time-resolved fluorescence, fluorescence
polarization, luminescence, Alphascreen TM, and absorption—in
all plate formats, up to 1536 wells.
ratiometrocity eliminates well-to-well variation.
is time-resolved, permitting the use of fluorescein
with no compound interference.
simplifies assay development and costs.
Spectrum also uses a customized, application-specific
module in conjunction with an optical reading head.
The head features five photomultiplier tubes that can
simultaneously measure two emission signals at any wavelength.
The optical design provides exceptional sensitivity
and accuracy in fluorescence and luminescence assays,
and simultaneous measurements effectively minimize assay
features provide Spectrum with the speed and sensitivity
necessary to take full advantage of CordaShield’s assay
results demonstrate the acute sensitivity of CordaShield
PKC assays, in that they require sub ng/ml kinase concentrations
thereby reducing overall screening costs. Assays have
also been shown to be robust, with Z’ values exceeding
0.7, thus providing confidence the assay data are meaningful.
Bjorn Technologies has optimized its TR-FRET photomultiplier
tubes to allow for the most sensitive CordaShield detection
system on the market, and designed an optic module specifically
for CordaShield, further simplifying assay setup.
CordaShield TR-FRET Protein Kinase C Assay Using the
- A specific optical module for application of ChemGen’s
assay on Bjorn’s Spectrum
- Duel wavelength detection of terbium and fluorescein
- Strong, long-lasting donor signal that minimizes background
- Rapid and reliable detection of PKC activity
Back to top.
White Paper Sample #2
the most of your assays, your cells and your time.
multiple paramaters within the same well with Betamer’s
Multiplexed Cell Viability and Apoptosis Assays performed
on the Spectrum.
screening facilities today face rising demands to produce
more information from existing compound libraries. One
way to obtain this information is to run sequential assays,
in which the researcher looks at one parameter after another
in separate plates. While this method may produce the
desired data, the time and cost requirements are considerable.
avoid these drawbacks, researchers may opt to generate
data by performing assays in a multiplexed format. Multiplexed
assays allow for multiple parameters to be measured within
the same well. One example of this is to the method of
cell death—apoptosis or necrosis—following a certain treatment
protocol. By performing two assays in a single well, researchers
can obtain information on a drug’s mode of action in less
time, with less consumable cost, and using smaller amounts
of valuable test compounds.
multiplexing can be conducted using multiple cell-based
assays multiplexed together. Cell assays have inherent
properties that make them attractive for multiplexed cell-based
applications. Indeed, cell-based assays are particularly
at risk of variation due to plate-to-plate differences
in cell growth and metabolism. And cell culture is inherently
by using multiplexing assays, researchers can acquire
the same amount of data using fewer cells, and, as the
same cells can be used for subsequent assays, data are
also more precise.
multiplexed cell viability and apoptosis assays using
Bjorn Technologies’ Spectrum plate reader:
- Correlated measurement of an apoptosis marker and cell
- Spectrum monitors for both luminescence and fluorescence
output signals from the same assay well
- Assay miniaturization up to a 1536-well format
of the experiments shown here demonstrate the ability
to perform different assays within the same assay well.
First using a non-lytic assay, such as Betamer’s [Cell
Titer-Blue], allows for the sequential multiplexing of
several different reagents within the same well. Multiplexed
cell-based assays, with a multifunctional plate reader
that records multiple output signals from the same assay
well, allow researchers to measure multiple parameters
within the same well, thus obtaining precise results faster
and with less consumable usage.
to Writing Samples main page.